Molybdenum mineral explained

Molybdenum is an essential trace element which body can not synthesize on its own and is naturally present in many foods and is also available as a dietary supplement.
Though your body only needs tiny amounts, it’s a key component of many vital functions. Without it, deadly sulfites and toxins would build up in your body.
Molybdenum appears to be absorbed via a passive nonmediated process, though where absorption occurs in the intestinal tract is not known yet. Adults absorb 40% to 100% of dietary molybdenum.
It is present in soil and transferred into your diet when you consume plants, as well as animals that feed on those plants. There is very little data on the specific molybdenum content of certain foods, as it depends on the content of the soil.
Although amounts vary, the richest sources are usually beans, lentils, grains and organ meats, particularly liver and kidney. Drinking water generally contains small amounts of molybdenum. However, according to 2017 data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 0.8% of drinking water samples had molybdenum levels above 40 mcg/L. The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA’s) FoodData Central does not list the molybdenum content of foods or provide lists of foods containing molybdenum. Therefore, the amount of information on molybdenum levels in foods is quite limited.
Studies have shown that your body doesn’t absorb it well from certain foods, like soy products. However, this is not considered a problem since other foods are so rich in it
Since your body only needs it in trace amounts and it’s abundant in many foods, molybdenum deficiency is rare. For this reason, people don’t usually need supplements, unless for some specific medical reasons.

Molybdenum is highly available in the diet, but supplements are still popular. As with many supplements, high doses can be problematic.
Some of this mineral is stored in liver and kidneys, but most of it is converted into a molybdenum cofactor. Any excess molybdenum is then passed in urine.
molybdenum cofactor activates four essential enzymes, which are biological molecules that drive chemical reactions in the body:
Sulfite oxidase: Converts sulfite to sulfate, preventing the dangerous buildup of sulfites in the body.
Aldehyde oxidase: Breaks down aldehydes, which can be toxic to the body. Also, it helps the liver break down alcohol and some drugs, such as those used in cancer therapy.
Xanthine oxidase: Converts xanthine to uric acid. This reaction helps break down nucleotides, the building blocks of DNA, when they’re no longer needed. They can then be excreted in the urine.
Mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component (mARC): This enzyme’s function isn’t fully understood, but it’s thought to remove toxic byproducts of metabolism
Molybdenum’s role in breaking down sulfites is especially important.
Sulfites are found naturally in foods and also sometimes added as a preservative. If they build up in the body, they can trigger an allergic reaction that can include diarrhea, skin problems or even breathing difficulties.
average daily intake of molybdenum in the US is 76 micrograms per day for women and 109 micrograms per day for men. This exceeds the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for adults, which is 45 micrograms per day.
The tolerable upper intake level (UL) is the highest daily intake of a nutrient that is unlikely to cause harm for almost all people. It is not recommended to regularly exceed it.
The UL for molybdenum is 2,000 micrograms (mcg) per day.
The average concentration of urinary molybdenum is 69 ng/mL, but urinary molybdenum does not reflect molybdenum status
Molybdenum toxicity is rare and studies in humans are limited. However, in animals, very high levels have been linked to reduced growth, kidney failure, infertility and diarrhea
Studies have shown that a high intake of molybdenum could possibly cause decreased bone growth and bone mineral density.
Currently, there are no controlled studies in humans. However, an observational study of 1,496 people found interesting results.
It found that as molybdenum intake levels increased, lumbar spine BMD appeared to decrease in women over the age of 50.
a study found that increased molybdenum in the blood was linked to decreased testosterone levels. When combined with low zinc levels, it was linked with a whopping 37% reduction in testosterone levels.
In certain situations, molybdenum can help reduce the levels of copper in the body. This process is being investigated as a treatment for some chronic diseases.