what is VLDL(Very low density lipoprotein)?

Very low density lipoprotein is one of the three major lipoprotein particles. The other two are high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL). Cholesterol is a fatty substance that’s necessary for building cells. In the body, it’s most commonly created in your liver through a complex pathway. Triglycerides are another type of fat that’s used to store extra energy in your cells. Each particle contains a mixture of cholesterol, triglyceride and protein, but in varying amounts unique to each type of particle. VLDL contains the highest amount of triglyceride and is called a triglyceride rich lipoprotein. VLDL particles are released into the blood by the liver and circulate in the bloodstream, ultimately being converted into LDL as they lose triglyceride having carried it to other parts of the body.
VLDL is approximately 10% cholesterol, 70% triglycerides, 10% proteins and 10% other fats while LDL is 26% cholesterol, 10% triglycerides, 25% proteins and 15% other fats.
An elevated VLDL cholesterol level is more than 30 milligrams per deciliter (0.77 millimole/liter).
Lipids are important substrates for oxidation at rest and during exercise. Aerobic exercise mediates a delayed onset decrease in total and VLDL-triglyceride (TG) plasma concentration. However, the acute effects of exercise on VLDL-TG oxidation and turnover remain unclear.
Lower VLDL secretion rate during exercise may contribute to the decrease in TG concentrations during and after exercise.
VLDL and LDL are both considered types of “bad” cholesterol. While your body needs both cholesterol and triglycerides to function, having too much of them can cause them to build up in your arteries.
The triglycerides carried by VLDL are used by cells in the body for energy. Eating more carbohydrates, or sugars, than you burn can lead to excessive amounts of triglycerides and high levels of VLDL in your blood. Extra triglycerides are stored in fat cells and released at a later time when needed for energy.
as mentioned, High levels of VLDL cholesterol have been associated with the development of plaque deposits on artery walls. Plaque buildup increases your risk for heart disease and stroke since it narrows the passage and restricts blood flow. Experts believe this is due to increased inflammation, increased blood pressure, changes in the lining of blood vessels, low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), the “good” cholesterol, High triglycerides are also associated with metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
The VLDL cholesterol concentration can be measured directly using a technique called ultracentrifugation. However, this technique is not straightforward and not usually done in clinical laboratories. This test is generally carried out in specialist laboratories, most often for research purposes.

how to lower VLDL and LDL?

do not indulge in smoking and alcohol consumption as much as possible
Eat a variety of foods including nuts, avocados, steel-cut oatmeal, and fish rich in omega-3 fatty acids, like salmon and halibut.
Increase soluble fiber(found in such foods as oatmeal, kidney beans, Brussels sprouts, apples and pears), Soluble fiber can reduce the absorption of cholesterol into your bloodstream.
Avoid saturated fats, which are found in foods like beef, butter, and cheese.
Exercise at least 30 minutes a day
Lose weight; Carrying even a few extra pounds contributes to high cholesterol. Small changes add up. If you drink sugary beverages, switch to tap water. Snack on air-popped popcorn or pretzels — but keep track of the calories. If you crave something sweet, try sherbet or candies with little or no fat, such as jelly beans.